How do children influence productivity, promotions, and participation in science? We investigate this question by analyzing the biographies, patents, and publications of 82,094 American scientists in 1956, at the height of the baby boom. Output data indicate that mothers reach peak productivity in their mid-40s, nearly a decade after other scientists. Event studies of marriage show that mothers become more productive 15 years into marriage, when children are less work. Differences in the timing of productivity have important implications for tenure. Just 27% of academic mothers achieve tenure, compared with 48% of fathers and 46% of other women. Examining selection, we find that female scientists are more educated, half as likely to marry, one third as likely to have children, and half as likely to survive in science compared with men. While mothers who survive are positively selected, employment data indicate that a generation of baby boom mothers was lost to American science.
Contending with Amazon's Rise: Causal Effect of Amazon Fulfillment Centers on Local Labor Markets (Undergraduate Honors Thesis advised by Lawrence J. White)
In 2017, 43% of all online sales within the United States involved Amazon, and in that same year, 64% of all households in America held Amazon Prime subscriptions. Clearly, Amazon’s immense economic impact is indisputable, but so is the figure of taxpayers’ money that the company receives. By the end of 2016, Amazon had received over $1 billion in terms of tax benefits from local governments with hopes that the company would bring new jobs into local communities through the expansion of its distribution network across the country. With such development projects consisting of the construction of facilities as large as 1,000,000 square feet in some cases, Amazon's net effect on local labor markets remains unclear. This paper investigates the effects of Amazon’s arrival into such communities by estimating the causal impact of Amazon fulfillment centers on local employment and annual wages within the warehousing and storage industry. By linking county-specific employment and annual wage data with the establishment of all Amazon fulfillment centers, I am able to establish and describe the causal relationships between fulfillment centers and local labor markets. For employment, Amazon fulfillment centers seem to create new jobs within the warehousing and storage industry while simultaneously increasing average annual wages. The paper also found evidence suggesting that Amazon's impact depends on the urbanity of counties. This is evidenced by how counties with lower levels of population densities were affected more by Amazon's arrival.